Archive for the ‘ T ’ Category


Dates: 1879-1940

Nationality: Russian

Leon Trotsky, born Lev Davidovich Bronstein, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. Trotsky’s ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a term coined as early as 1905 by his opponents in order to separate it from Marxism. Trotsky’s ideas remain a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism. He was one of the few Soviet political figures who were never rehabilitated by the Soviet administration.

Wikipedia contributors, ‘Leon Trotsky’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 December 2010, 02:30 UTC, <>

The quarrels about “pure art” and about “art with a tendency” took place between the liberals and the “populists.” They do not become us. Materialistic dialectics are above this; from the point of view of an objective historical process, art is always a social servant and historically utilitarian. It finds the necessary rhythm of words for dark and vague moods, it brings thought and feeling closer or contrasts them with one another, it enriches the spiritual experience of the individual and of the community, it refines feeling, makes it more flexible, more responsive, it enlarges the volume of thought in advance and not through the personal method of accumulated experience, it educates the individual, the social group, the class and the nation. And this it does quite independently of whether it appears in a given case under the flag of a ‘pure’ or of a frankly tendentious art.

In our Russian social development tendentiousness was the banner of the intelligentsia which sought contact with the people. The helpless intelligentsia, crushed by czarism and deprived of a cultural environment, sought support in the lower strata of society and tried to prove to the “people” that it was thinking only of them, living only for them and that it loved them “terribly.” And just as the populists who went to the people were ready to do without clean linen and without a comb and without a toothbrush, so the intelligentsia was ready to sacrifice the “subtleties” of form in its art, in order to give the most direct and spontaneous expression to the sufferings and hopes of the oppressed. On the other hand, “pure” art was the banner of the rising bourgeoisie, which could not openly declare its bourgeois character, and which at the same time tried to keep the intelligentsia in its service.




Dates: 1940-1960

Origin: Europe

Key Artists: Jean Fautrier, Georges Mathieu

(French tache: blot, stain, or spot). The term was originally used, disparagingly, in the late 19th century by critics of the Impressionists, in France. However it is more usually associated with the French critic Michel Tapie who used it objectively, in his book Un art autre (1952), to describe the work of several contemporary non-geometric abstract painters associated with the École de Paris. These artists, who included Georges Mathieu and Wols, produced work characterized by apparently spontaneous dabs, blotches, and dribbles of paint, similar to American Action Painting but less overtly vigorous.

Rodgers, David. “Tachisme.” The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

George Mathieu