Archive for the ‘ Movement ’ Category


Dates: 1999-Present

Origin: International

Key Artists: Billy Childish, Charles Thomson

Founded by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson in 1999, Stuckism is an art movement that is anti-conceptual and champions figurative painting. Thomson derived the name from an insult by the Young British Artist, Tracey Emin, who told her ex-lover Childish that his art was ‘stuck, stuck, stuck’. Since its modest beginnings Stuckism is now an international art movement with over a hundred members worldwide. Childish left in 2001, but the group continues its confrontational agenda, demonstrating against events like the Turner Prize or Beck’s Futures which the movement argues are among a number of art world events controlled by a small number of art world insiders.

“Stuckism.” 10 March 2010. <>

Stuckism is a radical and controversial art group that was co-founded in 1999 by Charles Thomson and Billy Childish (who left in 2001) along with eleven other artists. The name was derived by Thomson from an insult to Childish from his ex-girlfriend, Brit artist Tracey Emin, who had told him that his art was ‘Stuck’. Stuckists are pro-contemporary figurative painting with ideas and anti-conceptual art, mainly because of its lack of concepts. Stuckists have regularly demonstrated dressed as clowns against the Turner Prize. Several Stuckist Manifestos have been issued. One of them Remodernism inaugurates a renewal of spiritual values for art, culture and society to replace the emptiness of current Postmodernism. The web site, started by Ella Guru, has disseminated these ideas, and in five years Stuckism has grown to an international art movement with over 187 groups in 45 countries. These groups are independent and self-directed.

“Summary.” 10 March 2010. <>

Charles Thomson



Dates: 1970-Present

Origin: United States

Key Artists: Robert Williams, Gary Panter

Lowbrow, or lowbrow art, describes an underground visual art movement that arose in the Los Angeles, California, area. Lowbrow is a widespread populist art movement with origins in the underground comix world, punk music, hot-rod street culture, and other subcultures. It is also often known by the name pop surrealism. Lowbrow art often has a sense of humor – sometimes the humor is gleeful, sometimes impish, and sometimes it’s a sarcastic comment.Most lowbrow artworks are paintings, but there are also toys, digital art, and sculpture.

Wikipedia contributors. “Lowbrow (art movement).” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 4 Feb. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2010. <>

Robert Williams


Dates: 1968-2000

Origin: United States

Key Artists: Eva Hesse, Sol LeWitt

Coined by the art historian and critic Robert Pincus-Witten, Post-Minimalism refers to a general reaction by artists in America beginning in the late 1960s against Minimalism and its insistence on closed, geometric forms. These dissenting artists eschewed the impersonal object for more open forms. Rather than adhere to pure formalism, Post-Minimalist artists often made explicit the psychical and physical processes involved in the actualization of art and often reflected personal and social concerns in their works. In his 1987 book Postminimalism to Maximalism: American Art, 1966–1986, Pincus-Witten describes its progression as threefold: pictorial/sculptural, epistemological, and ontological (e.g., conceptual theater/body art). U.S.; late 1960s. The first, developing circa 1968, emphasized the manufacturing of art and the use of unconventional materials, frequently manifesting a newfound consideration of themes and media previously deemed too feminine, or “soft,” according to the Minimalist canon, as can be seen in Eva Hesse’s rope and latex pieces and Barry Le Va’s scatter installations. The second, beginning circa 1970, reassessed the applicability of theoretical constructs to art production, as evidenced in Sol LeWitt’s wall drawings, which exist as descriptions until they are realized by a second party. The third, beginning around 1968, involved the physical presentation of concepts and intentions via the artist s body, which in effect became the medium, as in the performances of Vito Acconci and Bruce Nauman. Artists grouped under this category are often also associated with Land art, Performance, Process art, and other forms of expression that resist the authority of the singular art object.

“Post-minimalism.” 12 March 2010. <>

Eva Hesse


Dates: 1960-1975

Origin: International

Key Artists: Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik

Informal international group of avant-garde artists working in a wide range of media and active from the early 1960s to the late 1970s. Their activities included public concerts or festivals and the dissemination of innovatively designed anthologies and publications, including scores for electronic music, theatrical performances, ephemeral events, gestures and actions constituted from the individual’s everyday experience. Other types of work included the distribution of object editions, correspondence art and concrete poetry. According to the directions of the artist, Fluxus works often required the participation of a spectator in order to be completed (see Performance art).

The name Fluxus, taken from the Latin for ‘flow’, was originally conceived by the American writer, performance artist and composer George Maciunas (1931–78) in 1961 as the title for a projected series of anthologies profiling the work of such artists as the composer La Monte Young (b 1935), George Brecht, Yoko Ono, Dick Higgins (b 1928), Ben, Nam June Paik and others engaged in experimental music, concrete poetry, performance events and ‘anti-films’ (e.g. Paik’s imageless Zen for Film, 1962). In a manifesto of 1962 (‘Neo-Dada in Music, Theater, Poetry, Art’, in J. Becker and W. Vostell: Happenings, Fluxus, Pop Art, Nouveau Réalisme, Hamburg, 1965), Maciunas categorized this diversity under the broad heading of ‘Neo-Dada’ and stressed the interest shared by all the artists in manifesting time and space as concrete phenomena. Influences of Fluxus noted by Maciunas included John Cage’s concrete music (1939) and intermedia event at Black Mountain College, NC (1952), with Merce Cunningham, Robert Rauschenberg and others; the Nouveaux Réalistes; the work of Ben; the concept art of Henry Flynt (b 1940); and Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made.

Corris, Michael. “Fluxus.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Joseph Beuys


Dates: 1958-1965

Origin: Europe

Key Artists: Christo, Gerhard Richter, Yves Klein

A term coined by the French critic Pierre Restany in 1960 (in a manifesto of this name) to characterize the work of a group of artists who incorporated real objects (often junk items) in their work to make ironic comments on modern life. The Nouveau Réalisme movement was part of the vogue for assemblage and had affinities with Junk sculpture and Pop art. Restany also recognized a debt to Dada—hence the title of an exhibition he held at his Galerie J in Paris in 1961, 40° au-dessus de Dada (40 Degrees above Dada). In the following year another representative exhibition, entitled New Realists, took place at the Sidney Janis gallery in New York. Yves Klein was closely associated with Restany in the foundation of Nouveau Réalisme, and among the other leading artists involved were Arman (1928– ), César (1921– ), and Tinguely (all three exhibited at both the Paris and New York shows mentioned above).

Chilvers, Ian. “Nouveau Réalisme.” The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Yves Klein


Dates: 1955-1975

Origin: Great Britain, United States

Key Artists: Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol

A term coined by the English critic Lawrence Alloway to describe a movement in modern art which flourished, mainly in the United States and Britain, from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. Pop art drew its imagery from the world of consumerism and popular culture, claiming no distinction between good and bad taste. In a sense it gave validity to a new iconography based on the culture of the everyday. In its desire to shock or reject the supposed higher ideals of more intellectual art it had some links with the earlier Dada movement. However, any pretensions to iconoclasm on the part of most Pop artists were in part compromised by the monumental status and beauty they accorded much of their allegedly banal imagery: for example, in the United States, Jasper John’s paintings of flags and targets and his sculptures of ale cans; Robert Rauschenberg’s collages with Coke bottles, stuffed birds, and photographs from newspapers and magazines; Andy Warhol’s screenprints of Campbell’s soup-tins, heads of Marilyn Monroe, etc. In Britain notable Pop artists included Allen Jones, Eduardo Paolozzi, Derek Boshier, and Richard Hamilton, who wittily described Pop art as ‘popular, transient, expendable, low-cost, mass-produced, young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous, and Big Business’—a definition which could equally have been applied to the popular music of the age and its associated culture, so nostalgically celebrated in the paintings of the British Pop artist Peter Blake.

“Pop art.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Andy Warhol



Dates: 1947-1965

Origin: San Francisco

Key Artists: Richard Diebenkorn, Wayne Thiebaud

The Bay Area Figurative Movement (also known as the Bay Area Figurative School, Bay Area Figurative Art, Bay Area Figuration, and similar variations) was a mid-20th Century art movement made up of a group of artists in the San Francisco Bay Area who abandoned working in the prevailing style of Abstract Expressionism in favor of a return to figuration in painting during the 1950s and onward into the 1960s. Spanning two decades, this art movement is often broken down into three groups, or generations: the First Generation, the Bridge Generation, and the Second Generation.

Many of the “First Generation” artists in this movement were avid fans of Abstract Expressionism, and worked in that manner, until several of them abandoned non-objective painting in favor of working with the figure. Among these First Generation Bay Area Figurative School artists were: David Park, Richard Diebenkorn, Elmer Bischoff, Wayne Thiebaud, and James Weeks. The “Bridge Generation” included the artists: Nathan Oliveira, Theophilus Brown, Paul John Wonner, Roland Petersen, Frank Lobdell. Many “Second Generation” artists of this movement studied under the First Generation artists, or were late starters. Among these Second Generation artists were: Bruce McGaw, Henry Villierme, Joan Brown, and Manuel Neri.

Wikipedia contributors. “Bay Area Figurative Movement.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 Feb. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2010. <;

Richard Diebenkorn