Archive for the ‘ Group ’ Category


Dates: 1988-1998

Origin: Great Britain

Key Artists: Damian Hirst, Tracey Emin

Term used to identify a group of British artists active in London from the 1980s to the late 1990s. The term was derived from a series of six exhibitions, Young British Artists I to Young British Artists VI, held between March 1992 and November 1996 at the Saatchi Gallery, London. The earliest core members of the group attended Goldsmiths’ College, London, in the late 1980s, under the tutelage of Michael Craig-Martin, Richard Wentworth and others. The group rose to prominence through a mixture of precocious talent and self-promotion, encouraged by the patronage of new collectors, particularly Charles Saatchi. The genesis of the YBAs can be traced to a 1988 warehouse show in London, curated by Damien Hirst and entitled Freeze. Hirst exhibited works by himself and 15 of his fellow Goldmiths’ students, including Angela Bulloch, Gary Hume, Sarah Lucas, Richard Patterson and Fiona Rae. Subsequent group exhibitions cemented the artists’ reputations for independence, entrepreneurial spirit and the ability to manipulate the media; particularly the warehouse show Modern Medicine (1990), curated by Hirst and journalist Carl Freedman (b 1965), and Freedman’s Minky Manky (1995; London, S. London A.G.).

Nicholson, Octavia. “Young British Artists.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <>

Damian Hirst



Dates: 1955-1980

Origin: Chicago

Key Artists: Leon Golub, Ed Paschke, Jim Nutt

The Chicago Imagists is the name of a group of representational artists associated with the School of the Art Institute of Chicago who exhibited at the Hyde Park Art Center in the late 1960s. Their work was known for grotesquerie, surrealism and complete uninvolvement with New York art world trends. Critic Ken Johnson referred to Chicago Imagism as “the postwar tradition of fantasy-based art making.” One remarkable thing about them was the high proportion of female artists among them. There are three distinct groups which outside of Chicago are indiscriminately bundled together as Imagists: The Monster Roster, The Hairy Who, and The Chicago Imagists.

Wikipedia contributors. “Chicago Imagists.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 12 Mar. 2010. <;

Jim Nutt


Dates: 1950-1970

Origin: Great Britain

Key Artists: Barbara Hepworth, Peter Lanyon

A loosely structured group of British artists who were drawn to the Cornish fishing port of St Ives between the 1940s and 1960s. The area had been favoured by artists since the 1880s. Its more widespread popularity dated from 1939, however, when Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth settled there, anxious to bring up their children far away from London and its attendant dangers with the outbreak of war. They were joined by the critic Adrian Stokes and the artist Naum Gabo. After the end of the Second World War in 1945 a number of abstract artists, including Terry Frost and Patrick Heron, also settled there. They were greatly attracted by the qualities of light and atmosphere and the distinctive landscape of the St Ives area. A branch of the London Tate Gallery was opened in St Ives in 1993 and holds changing exhibitions of the work of 20th-century artists associated with the town.

“St Ives School.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Peter Lanyon


Dates: 1948-1956

Origin: Barcelona

Key Artists: Antoni Tàpies

Artistic and literary group based in Barcelona and active from 1948 to 1956. It was founded in September 1948 by the poet Joan Brossa, who proposed the group’s name, together with philosopher Arnau Puig and the painters Modest Cuixart, Joan Ponç (b 1927), Antoni Tàpies and Joan-Josep Tharrats. They based their stance largely on Dada and Surrealism and related developments, notably on Max Ernst’s early work and on the art of Paul Klee and Joan Miró, and directed much of their attention to the sub-conscious by way of magic and the occult. Making clear their opposition to academic and official artistic circles, they were an important force in promoting contemporary art in Catalonia after the damage to their culture effected by the Spanish Civil War (1936–9).

Julián, Inmaculada. “Dau al Set.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Antoni Tàpies


Dates: 1948-1951

Origin: Europe

Key Artists: Karel Appel, Asger Jorn, Constant

A Marxist-based association of painters founded in the Café Notre-Dame, Paris, on 8 November 1948, which was active until 1951. The title is an acronym for Copenhagen, Brussels, and Amsterdam, reflecting the nationalities of the principal founder members, the Danish Asger Jorn, the Belgians Corneille (1922– ) and Pierre Alechinsky (1927– ), and the Dutch Karel Appel. Determined to produce a new Art for the People they emphasized spontaneity, while repudiating Surrealist automatism, and based their work on children’s drawings, primitive art, and the doodles of Klee. Their imagery, frequently crude and violent, was developed from Nordic myth and Jungian symbolism and they shared childlike forms and brash colour. The group, which soon included writers and poets, first exhibited together in 1949, at the 1st Exposition d’Art Expérimental in Amsterdam, to a hostile reception. A change of name to Internationale des Artistes Expérimentaux reflected the inclusion of French and German artists in the movement. They published their ideas in the COBRA Review (eight issues) and held a further exhibition at Liège in 1951 after which COBRA was dissolved.

Rodgers, David. “Cobra.” The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;



Dates: 1919-1933

Origin: Germany

Key Artists: Joseph Albers, Paul Klee

An early 20th-century school combining the fine and applied arts and architecture, its name was based on the Bauhütten or masons’ lodges of medieval times. This reflected the concept of workshop training as opposed to academic studio education. Such communal idealism, partly a reaction against the horrors of the First World War, was very much based on the thinking of 19th-century writers such as John Ruskin and William Morris. The first Bauhaus was located in Weimar, Germany, and developed from the school of arts and crafts founded there in 1906 by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar. In 1919 Walter Gropius was appointed as its director. It was Gropius who renamed it the Bauhaus and undertook extensive reorganization. A generally Expressionist aesthetic was soon replaced by the growing influence of Functionalism and an interest in industrial design, and artists of the calibre of Kandinsky, Klee, Feininger, and Schlemmer came to work at the Bauhaus. In 1925 it removed to Dessau in Anhalt where it acquired a splendid new glass and reinforced concrete building designed and built by Gropius in 1925–6. The architect Mies van der Rohe later became director and the Bauhaus was forced to transfer to Berlin in 1932 and was finally closed down by the Nazis the following year.

“Bauhaus.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Paul Klee


Dates: 1917-1931

Origin: Holland

Key Artists: Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg

[Dutch, ‘The Style’] the name of a loosely associated group of mainly Dutch artists founded in 1917 and of the journal they published to promote their ideas. The moving spirit was Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) and other associates included the painter Piet Mondrian, the architect Gerrit Rietveld, and the sculptor Georges Vantongerloo. Their common aim was to find laws of equilibrium and harmony that would be applicable to life and society as well as art, and the style that is associated with them is one of austere abstract clarity. The greatest impact of De Stijl was not on painting but on architecture and the applied arts (including furniture design and typography). It was particularly influential upon the founders of the Bauhaus.

“De Stijl.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Piet Mondrian