Archive for the ‘ E ’ Category


Dates: 1955-

Nationality: American

James Elkins is an art historian and art critic. He is also E.C. Chadbourne Chair of art history, theory, and criticism at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He is on the faculty of the Stone Summer Theory Institute, a short term school on contemporary art history held in Chicago.

Wikipedia contributors, ‘James Elkins (art critic)’, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 August 2010, 08:52 UTC, <>

James Elkins grew up in Ithaca, New York, separated from Cornell University by a quarter-mile of woods once owned by the naturalist Laurence Palmer. He stayed on in Ithaca long enough to get the BA degree (in English and Art History), with summer hitchhiking trips to Alaska, Mexico, Guatemala, the Caribbean, and Columbia. For the last twenty-five years he has lived in Chicago; he got a graduate degree in painting, and then switched to Art History, got another graduate degree, and went on to do the PhD in Art History, which he finished in 1989. (All from the University of Chicago.) Since then he has been teaching at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He is currently E.C. Chadbourne Chair in the Department of Art History, Theory, and Criticism.

His writing focuses on the history and theory of images in art, science, and nature. Some of his books are exclusively on fine art (What Painting Is, Why Are Our Pictures Puzzles?). Others include scientific and non-art images, writing systems, and archaeology (The Domain of Images, On Pictures and the Words That Fail Them), and some are about natural history (How to Use Your Eyes). Current projects include a series called the Stone Summer Theory Institutes, a book called The Project of Painting: 1900-2000, a series called Theories of Modernism and Postmodernism in the Visual Art, and a book written against Camera Lucida.




Dates: 1905-1930

Origin: Europe

Key Artists: Wassily Kandinsky, André Masson

A term used to describe a movement in painting, sculpture, and the graphic arts which flourished c.1905–20, gaining its most productive foothold in Germany until its suppression by the Nazis after 1933. The Expressionists are characterized by a deliberate rejection of the ideals of naturalism and Impressionism, which had dominated art in the later 19th century with their emphasis on the reproduction of observed reality. Although much debate has surrounded the origins of the term Expressionism itself, it was given public currency by the German gallery owner and publisher Herwart Walden, who used it in a generalized sense to characterize all the modern art opposed to Impressionism. In 1911 the term could be used to describe the Fauve artists with their strident expressiveness of colour and the Cubists with their analysis of form; indeed the movement itself can be argued to have its origins in France, developing almost simultaneously, however, in other European countries as well.

Aronowitz-Mercer, Richard. “Expressionism.” The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <;

Wassily Kandinsky