BAUHAUS

Dates: 1919-1933

Origin: Germany

Key Artists: Joseph Albers, Paul Klee

An early 20th-century school combining the fine and applied arts and architecture, its name was based on the Bauhütten or masons’ lodges of medieval times. This reflected the concept of workshop training as opposed to academic studio education. Such communal idealism, partly a reaction against the horrors of the First World War, was very much based on the thinking of 19th-century writers such as John Ruskin and William Morris. The first Bauhaus was located in Weimar, Germany, and developed from the school of arts and crafts founded there in 1906 by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar. In 1919 Walter Gropius was appointed as its director. It was Gropius who renamed it the Bauhaus and undertook extensive reorganization. A generally Expressionist aesthetic was soon replaced by the growing influence of Functionalism and an interest in industrial design, and artists of the calibre of Kandinsky, Klee, Feininger, and Schlemmer came to work at the Bauhaus. In 1925 it removed to Dessau in Anhalt where it acquired a splendid new glass and reinforced concrete building designed and built by Gropius in 1925–6. The architect Mies van der Rohe later became director and the Bauhaus was forced to transfer to Berlin in 1932 and was finally closed down by the Nazis the following year.

“Bauhaus.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. Oxford Art Online. 12 Mar. 2010 <http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/opr/t4/e182&gt;

Paul Klee

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